On August 2nd, 1964, the U.S.S. Maddox, of the United States, was confronted by three North Vietnamese torpedo boats in the Gulf of Tonkin. Two days later, the United States claimed a second confrontation. Surprisingly, the attacks on the U.S.S Maddox were never confirmed as some soldiers believed that there had been a mistake caused by the sound of the ship’s own propeller. However, in response to this alleged violence, President Lyndon B. Johnson ordered airstrikes on North Vietnamese military assets, and the United States Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. This authorized President Johnson to use military force in Southeast Asia without a formal declaration of war. To prevent further escalation of conflict between Soviet-backed North Vietnam and US-backed South Vietnam, an emergency summit between important world leaders has been called for early September, 1964.


    • Lyndon B. Johnson (US)
    • Mao Zedong (China)
    • Kim Il-sung (North Korea)
    • Nguyễn Khánh (South Vietnam)
    • Hồ Chí Minh (North Vietnam)
    • Charles de Gaulle (France)
    • Lester B. Pearson (Canada)
    • Walter Ulbricht (East Germany)
    • Ludwig Erhard (West Germany)
    • Anastas Mikoyan (Soviet Union)
    • Lal Bahadur Shastri (India)
    • Hayato Ikeda (Japan)
    • Chung Il-kwon (South Korea)
    • Ayub Khan (Pakistan)
    • Diosdado Macapagal (Philippines)
    • Sir Alec Douglas-Home (UK)
    • Fidel Castro (Cuba)
    • Cemal Gürsel (Turkey)
    • Sir Robert Menzies (Australia)
    • Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco (Brazil)
    • Hendrik Verwoerd (South Africa)
    • Moise Tshombe (Democratic Republic of the Congo)